Voltage Measurement and Harmonic Analysis Based on Josephson Voltage Standards


Josephson voltage standards take advantage of the ultimate accuracy of the quantum Josephson effect to produce voltage signals with perfectly known characteristics. They have been in common use dc voltage measurements since the 80s.  More recently their operation has been extended to the measurement of ac voltage.

At the National Measurement Institute Australia, we have developed a number of Josephson voltage standards for dc and ac voltage measurements and extended their operation to spectrum analysis.

This presentation will (a) explain the operation of the quantum voltage standards, (b) describe how they can be used in dc and ac voltage measurements and spectrum analysis, (c) discuss the relevant measurement errors and (d) explain the implications of the redefinition of the International System of units (SI) to voltage measurements.

  Date and Time




  • 8 Thomas St
  • Chatswood, Sydney, New South Wales
  • Australia 2067
  • Building: Engineers Australia
  • Room Number: Harricks Auditorium
  • Co-sponsored by Engineers Australia and The IET


Dr Dimitrios Georgakopoulos

Dr Dimitrios Georgakopoulos of National Measurement Institute


Dimitrios Georgakopoulos is a senior research scientist with the National Measurement Institute, Australia. He received his B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from the Technological Educational Institution of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece, in 1996; his M.Sc. degree in electronic instrumentation systems from the University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, in 1999; and Ph.D. in electrical engineering and electronics from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester, UK, in 2002.

From 2002 to 2007, he worked as a research scientist at the National Physical Laboratory, UK. In 2007, he joined the National Measurement Institute, Australia, where he has been working on the development of quantum electrical standards and standards for low frequency electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

Dr Georgakopoulos has participated in a number of technical committees including the IEEE committee (TC-39) for the Measurements in Power Systems and the Calibration Accreditation Advisory Committee (AAC) of the National Association for Testing Authorities (NATA). He chairs a working group on calibration and measurement capabilities related to phase angle, charge, harmonics and flicker in the Technical Committee on Electricity and Magnetism of the Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP). He is also Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement.

Dr Georgakopoulos is a senior member of IEEE and a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), USA.

Address:36 Bradfield Road, , West Linfield, New South Wales, Australia, 2070